Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, higher learning was preserved in Ireland, in contrast to elsewhere in Europe during the Dark Ages. This led to a flowering of sculpture, jewelry, metalworking and manuscript illumination (including treasures such as the Book of Kells). The 20th century saw another cultural flowering: Ireland produced four winners of the Nobel Prize in Literature — George Bernard Shaw, W.B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett and Seamus Heaney — plus James Joyce, the father of literary modernism.
The country’s weather is mild and variable. The west coast is wetter, cloudier and cooler in summer than the remainder of Ireland, which is typified by Dublin. Consistent rainfall is responsible for the Emerald Isle’s verdant landscape. However, there is no time of year when fine weather can be guaranteed. Travelers should come prepared for rain, and regard a sunny day as a delightful and unexpected treat.
To phone hotels and restaurants in Ireland, dial 011 (international access) + 353 (Ireland code) + city code and local numbers in listings.
Five hours ahead of New York (EST).
Euro (€). Fluctuating rate valued at €1.00 = US$1.13 as of April 2019.
Dublin, Tel. (353) 1-668-8777.